liquidity ratios

@ current ratio = current assets/current liabilities

working capital ratio

@ acid-test ratio = (Cash+Short-Term investments+ receivables(Net))/Current liabilities


@ receivables turnover = Net credit sales/average net receivables

average collection period

@ inventory turnover = cost of goods sold/average inventory

average days to sell inventory

Profitability ratios
Both creditors and investors are interested in evaluating earning power-profitability.
Profitability is frequently used as the ultimate test of management's operating effectiveness.

% profit Margin = net income/net sales
high volume - low margin
low volume - high

% asset turnover = net sales/average assets

% return on assets = net income/average assets
overall measure of profitability

% return on common stockholders' equity = net income/average common stockholders' equity
(first minus the preffered dividends, if it has one.)

% earning per share(EPS) = Net income/weighted average common shares outstanding
intracompany used

% price-earnings ratio(P-E) = market price per share of stock/earnings per share

% payout ratio = cash dividens/net income

solvency ratios(debt-paying ability)

$ debt to total assets ratio = total debt/total assets
the higher the greater risks that a company may accounter
stable- higher than fluctuating earnings

$ times interest earned = income before income taxes and interest expense/interest expense

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